Can Artificial Intelligence Make A Bookmakers To Quit Their Jobs?

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Can Artificial Intelligence Make A Bookmakers To Quit Their Jobs?

“The victory of artificial intelligence over football experts” – this could be the title of this article about the results of a football competition. Could, but, alas, did not.

The story of how machine learning helped us achieve good results among football teams. True, we did not manage to break the bank, but we discovered a new fascinating world of Data Science.

  • We began with the hypothesis that in addition to the individual skill of national team players, there are still immeasurable but important factors – team spirit + teamwork (for example, a team in a game with a stronger opponent, but in the test match and in his field wins more often). The task is not so simple for a person, but quite understandable for machine learning.

We once had a little experience with ML (with the BrainJS library), but this time I decided to check the statement that Python is much better suited for such tasks.

We quickly found an excellent Dataset with a history of all games of international teams from the beginning of the 20th century. After importing Pandas data frame:

AI Photo 1

In total, the database contains information about 39 thousand games of international teams.

Pandas make it very convenient to analyze data, for example, the most productive match was between Australia and American Samoa in 2001, which ended with a score of 31: 0.

AI Photo 2

Now we need to add an objective assessment of the level of the team in the year of the match. Such assessments involved FIFA.

AI Photo 2

But, unfortunately, the FIFA rating has been conducted only since 1992. And, judging by the schedule, the teams’ ratings are highly susceptible to change, and we really would not want to average the positions of the teams in the world rankings until this year.

UEFA has been keeping its statistics since more ancient times, but we could not find a ready-made dataset, so this site came to the rescue. Under Node.js, there is a powerful and convenient Cheerio for such tasks, but under Python, everything turned out to be just as simple.

Web scraping ranking


from requests import get
from requests.exceptions import RequestException
from contextlib import closing
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

def query_url(url):
try:
with closing(get(url, stream=True)) as resp:
if is_good_response(resp):
return resp.content
else:
return None
except RequestException as e:
log_error('Error during requests to {0} : {1}'.format(url, str(e)))
return None

def is_good_response(resp):
content_type = resp.headers['Content-Type'].lower()
return (resp.status_code == 200

and content_type is not None

and content_type.find('html') > -1)
def log_error(e):
print(e)

def parse_ranks(raw_html, year):
html = BeautifulSoup(raw_html, 'html.parser')
ranks = []
for tr in html.select('tr'):
tds = tr.select("td")

if len(tds) == 10:

rank = (year, tds[2].text, tds[7].text)

ranks.append(rank)
return ranks

def get_url(year):
if year in range(1960, 1999): method = 1
if year in range(1999, 2004): method = 2
if year in range(2004, 2009): method = 3
if year in range(2009, 2018): method = 4
if year in range(2018, 2019): method = 5
return f"https://kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl/bert/uefa/data/method{method}/crank{year}.html"

ranks = []
for year in range(1960, 2019):
url = get_url(year)
print(url)
raw_html = query_url(url)
rank = parse_ranks(raw_html, year)
ranks += rank

with open('team_ranks.csv', 'w') as f:
writer = csv.writer(f , lineterminator='\n')
writer.writerow(['year', 'country', 'rank'])
for rank in ranks:

writer.writerow(rank)

Rating fluctuations after adding the UEFA rating (and a small edit of country names on the basis of geopolitical casting):

  • The UEFA keeps a rating of only European teams (it’s worth sometimes to wonder what is hidden under common abbreviations before using them). Fortunately, the play-off was formed almost “European”.

It remains a little more comfortable to divide the results into separate games and add ratings to the table.

The most interesting part is model training. Google immediately suggested the easiest and fastest option – this is the MLPClassifier classifier from the Python library – Sklearn. Let’s try to teach the model on the example of Sweden.


from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
games = pd.read_csv ('games.csv')

# Sweden games only
SwedenGames = games [(games.teamTitle == 'Sweden')]

# Game Results
y = SwedenGames ['score']
y = y.astype ('int')

# Feature table
X = SwedenGames.drop (['score', 'teamTitle', 'againstTitle'], axis = 1)

# Dividing the sample into training and test
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split (X, y, test_size = 0.25)

mlp = MLPClassifier ()
mlp.fit (X_train, y_train);

predictions = mlp.predict (X_test)

print ('Accuracy: {: .2}'. format (
accuracy_score (y_test, mlp.predict (X_test))
))

Accuracy: 0.62

Not much more accurate than throwing a coin, but probably already better than my potential “expert” predictions. Here it would be wise to try to enrich the data, play with hyperparameters, but we decided to go the other way and try the gradient boosting library Catboost from Yandex. On the one hand, it is more patriotic, on the other – they promise high-quality work with categorical features, as evidenced by numerous comparisons.

Took the settings from the example:


# Indexes of categorical feature columns
categorical_features_indices = [1, 2, 4]

train_pool = Pool (X_train, y_train, cat_features = categorical_features_indices)
validate_pool = Pool (X_test, y_test, cat_features = categorical_features_indices)

# Boosting is quite sensitive to setting up hyper parameters, I used GridSearchCV to automate the iteration. Derived values

best_params = {
'iterations': 500,
'depth': 10,
'learning_rate': 0.1,
'l2_leaf_reg': 1,
'eval_metric': 'Accuracy',
'random_seed': 42,
'logging_level': 'Silent',
'use_best_model': True
}

cb_model = CatBoostClassifier (** best_params)
cb_model.fit (train_pool, eval_set = validate_pool)

print ('Accuracy: {: .2}'. format (
accuracy_score (y_test, cb_model.predict (X_test))
))

Accuracy: 0.73

Already better, we try in business.


def get_prediction (country, against):
y = SwdenGames ['score']
y = y.astype ('int')
X = SwdenGames.drop (['score', 'againstTitle'], axis = 1)

train_pool = Pool (X, y, cat_features = [1, 2, 4])
query = [get_team_rank (country, 2018),
0,
1 if country == 'Russia' else 0,
get_team_rank (against, 2018),
against]
return cb_model.predict_proba ([query]) [0]

team_1 = 'Belgium'
team_2 = 'France'

result = get_prediction (team_1, team_2)
if result [0]> result [1]:
print (f "Team {team_1} will win over team {team_2} with probability {result [0] * 100: .1f}%")
else:
print (f "Team {team_1} will lose to team {team_2} with probability {result [1] * 100: .1f}%")

Forecast results for the final “Croatia team will lose to France with a probability of 93.7%”

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